DIESEL-ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE OVERHAUL AND REPAIR
The revision of the
electric Diesel locomotives
repair of the organs of the diesel-electric locomotives
revision of the electric Diesel locomotives
let us follow together, the course of the various stages of the
maintenance of a diesel-electric locomotive, between the moment when it enters
in revision and its exit of the workshops.
The programming of entry of an locomotive in revision is
established by the Service Production of QM. As we saw in the preceding chapter,
the release of the passages in revision is function to the mileage which the
machine traversed. The revision of a locomotive represents then more than 200 tasks (works of
dismantling, expertise, assembly, restoration, handling, essays, repair,
alterations) and it concerns about ten different specialities (mechanics,
freinistes, heat engineers, electricians, boilermakers, painters, welder,
warehousemen etc.). The whole represents approximately 2300 working hours - to
whom come to be added the time necessary for the restoration of parts,-
distributed on around thirty workdays. On average 10 agents intervene every day
on every machine in revision.
On the day "D", ie at the moment the locomotive
crosses the heavy metal door of the "Montage", will start for her a makeover.
Arrived by its own means, or brought by a jitney,
the machine sits on a path of disassembly. The first operation is performed,
called "Stripped" is to drain the engine of its water, its fuel and oil.
Bloodless, if one can say, it can then be carried out the disassembling of its
components. The duration of the operations will be spread out over two days. The
order of the operations of disassembling obeys a program worked out with an aim
of avoiding with the various corporations being in the same place at the same
time. Thus the following operation consists in removing of the locomotive, its
roof. Once deposited, the elements which compose it and which are usually called
“Pavillons” are laid out on specific feet in a building site close to the way of
disassembling. Ceci fait une équipe se charge
de les déséquiper afin de les envoyer rapidement dans l’aire de lavage adjacente
à la voie de démontage appelée “ Zone 13 ”. A l’intérieur de la locomotive
découverte cela va déjà beaucoup mieux. This made, a team undertakes of them
déséquiper. This in order to quickly send them in the adjacent washdown to the
way of disassembling called “Zone 13”. Inside the discovered locomotive, that
goes already much better. The mechanics, the electricians and the freinists,
specialized with this series of machines, activate themselves then in all the
points of the machine, and they déposit the parts which will have to be revised
or will have to be exchanged.
The general state of soiling of the locomotive
is such that the work clothes of the workers at the end of the dismantling, are
good for cleaning. Each week hundreds of work clothes and sent to a private
cleaning. After their removal, the locomotive parts are
placed in special baskets. Numbered with metal tags, not to be mixed with other
gear, they follow a cleaning cycle consisting mostly baths according to their
specific nature (steel or aluminum). The steel pipes receive an additional
The Subsets, such as the "electric-generator" commonly called the "MD", the
group of "refrigeration" called "the Fridge" and the "Wardrobe of electrical
equipment" known commonly as , "the armoire", are extracted from the body of the
locomotive with the overhead cranes of 60 tons. Cleaned, these subsets are then
directed to sites specialised divisional workshops to undergo the revisions and
Emptied of most of its components, the locomotive is lifted and
placed using overhead cranes, combined for the occasion, in the washing area
where were removed the roofings. Cleaned
completely, and its fuel tanks degassed, she is placed in Hall C, on a positions
of review vacant .
The bogies, remained on the ground, are shipped
directly into the hall A, where they will undergo a path parallel and similar as
The interventions of the teams begin then methodically. They
proceed to the restoration of the skeleton of the body, its outside then
internal walls. These works, which follow upon meticulous expertises, are
bringing very often to diverse operations of boilermaking.
Gradually the restored bodywork is then rééquipée. The subsets return diverse
workshops, resumed successively, their places in the bodywork . The electric
wirings, the internal and outside doors, furnishing of driver's cabs as well as
earth coverings, equipments of brake, the reservoirs of air etc., are either
reconditioned, or replaced.
The locomotive is then rested on its bogies,
previously set up on a way out, at the end of Concourse C near Paris. After
making, on a pit, the operations links "bogie-box", we proceed to the multiple
testing of electrical and brake before entering the running-in phase and
calibration of the locomotive.
For some engines, the running in is performed prior to its
implant. An on-line try will serve as last control, and will allow, following
the possible retouches, to send back the locomotive towards its Warehouse holder
with a maximum of guarantees.
The duration of immobilisation of the locomotives within the
workshops of QM is the object of a pushed study. Every intervention, as we have
just seen him, follows a strategic chronological order. The interventions of the
teams on the diverse under sets and on the bodywork follow a common program
which is the object of a daily relationship to allow the return and the
reassembly of all the subsets in due course in bodywork .
The plan above is applied to all the series for every type of
revision. However the particular cases represented by the interventions made on
damaged locomotives (collisions or set on fire) or entered at QM for an exchange
of damaged organ will see this plan varying according to the realized
expertises, and the possibilities of handling. On average, one hundred of
locomotives of all confused series go enter and exit by year of Workshops of
repair of the organs of the diesel-electric locomotives
The revision of locomotives to Q.M. represents however only 30 % of the
production of the establishment. The repair of organs represents the most
important part with 70 % of the turnover. At the parts deposited of the
locomotives in revision at QM, are indeed added those from the diverse
deposits and the stores of the S.N.C.F.. Forwarded by the rail or by the road,
they come to undergo the revisions and the necessary repairs in the various
workshops specialised of Quatre-Mares. This reality, infers for workshops A1,
A2, A4, A6 and A7 the realisation of works bound more to the notion of
constitution of a steering wheel of spare parts ( minimum stock) than to the
notion of exit of locomotives.
Here is how are distributed the activities, in workshops
specialised of Quatre-Mares.
The workshop "A1" is specialized in sheet metal work, welding,
painting and review of the refrigerants groups .
The boilerwork is responsible for the repair of sheet metal work
and frames damaged by the number of years, fires or collisions. The Boilermakers
straighten bodyworks, or exchange of the parties, sometimes important, their
structures, whether it is in the hall "C" for the small interventions, or in the
hall "H", when the scale of the works becomes too important.
In the hall "H", they realize preparations of series , parts of
boilermaking (sheet steels or profiles), requiring the use of cutting machines,
bending or welding. In short everything that twists, bends, rolls, bends,
stretches or shrinks is their domain.
The weld is a natural continuation of the function "boilermaking".
As of the time of the vapor, this speciality represents a very important load in
the operations on locomotives, but also in the preparations of new parts. At the
master's degree of the diverse techniques of solderings, always in the forefront
of progress, it is necessary to add the reloading of parts arrived at their
limit of wear.
The painting, of the locomotives and bodies, is also under the
authority of the workshop "A1". The painting operations are performed either in
the lobby "H", equipped with a hood and a string of special paint, or in
workshops on specific organ such as the engines, for which a cabin was built in
the Hall "A", and inside the locomotives on the editorial positions of Hall "C".
The outside of the bodywork of locomotives will be painted during
20 years on the ways of exits of the hall "C", before that one cabin of painting
is built outside of the main building in 1985. This last one allows the usage of
the modern techniques in particular the use of polyuréthannes paints or of
paintings with water varnished.
The revision of the groups of refrigeration, locomotives in
revision to QM, is also a part of works of "A1". This subset is major for a
period of life of the diesel engines because he assures their cooling. The
building site will be moved several times for various reasons and will elect
sometimes residence in the hall “A” sometimes in the hall “C” or in the hall
Machining is the field of the workshop “A2” which, in the half-halls
“D” and “E” Paris side, gathers the major part of the heritage of the machine
tools of Quatre-Mares. The totality of the confection, realized on lathes,
grinding machines, drill presses etc. is under his responsability. The machining,
in series, parts with the dimensions reduced, at the machining of the frames of
bogie and of the frames of engine, major the part of what is necessary for the
revision and the maintenance of the locomotives is carried out by its agents.
In the workshop "A3", teams of worker are spread over the entire
surface of the hall "C". Specialized originally at the type of gear, these teams
specialize in early 1977 in the same types of tasks. This reorganization, called
QM the "horizontal cut" was imposed by the significant increase in planned
revisions annually for the BB Series 67400, which would have imposed, at the
establishment, to duplicate the team. Agents and the teams were specialized by
areas. (A team for the roofs of all series, a team for cabs etc.. ..).
In 1978, the establishment, fort of a fruitful
experience to the workshop of diesel engines, will generalize the scientific
management for the assembly of locomotives. Graphs of "PERT", exposed in the
workshop, allowed to schedule the works planned with a precision without
ambiguity; on the paper quite at least!.. But if the working time of a worker
have exceeded the scheduled time, the entire organization downstream is
collapsed. This experience will last actually not very long. Although logical,
one soon realises that is very difficult to schedule the work of revision as
opposed to building new equipment. Unforeseen events, such as the discovery of a
broken screw, can often upset predictions, and to require a half day of work
where a half-hour would have sufficed. The successive organizations, based on
annual charges imposed, have saw sometimes the need to create in the workshop
"A3" a team that specializes in accident repairs (RA), charged to replace
damaged organs (exchange of diesel engine, the cooling unit, bogies etc. ..
having suffered damage). When this was not the case, this
expense was borne by the teams "boxes", by serial of locomotives.
Under the responsibility of the workshop "A4",
are placed the review of the bogies, and repair of axles of locomotives. The
revision of the bogies is carried out in the hall "A". Like the boxes of
locomotives, the bogies are completely stripped, and their structures are
subject to a considerable level of expertise before being re-equipped their
engines and axles. After test runs, they are routed to the lobby "C", to resume
their place under the boxes. L’activité "Essieux" occupe l’atelier dit
“ des Roues ”. The responsibility of the axles includes, besides the axles the
diesel locomotives in revision to QM, the axles of autoengines, as well as the
axles the cars and the wagons. We find in the workshop of wheels, machine tools
with appropriate dimensions. The many towers, there are the machines to wedge
and remove the wheels of the axles.
The workshop "A5", was in 1970, the name given at the workshops
of "Buddicom". At the closure of these buildings in 1985, this name is
attributed to maintenance crews and equipment installations.Although this
workshop is not directly connected to the production, its responsibility
contributes to it in a way. In fact all the machine tools of the establishment
are revised by her agents. Add to it that, the maintenance of the machines of
lifting, and handling, and all the electric installations of comfort as well as
the heating of the diverse buildings and the workshops of Q.M. pass between
The workshop " A6 " is specialised in the
electric equipment of machines. its work sites are installed in the half-halls
"D", "E" and "F" side Rouen. In the half-hall "D", we find the teams loaded with
the revision of the groups electric "turning" such as generators any series, and
the engines of drive. Specialized teams intervene then, to the carcass of
stators, (the rotors are revised in the workshops of Oullins). Some
Installations of cleaning and étuvage private individuals to these techniques
are installed there. In the half-hall "E" side Rouen are revised, and sometimes
modified, the writing desks of driving of all the series of locomotives repaired
to QM, as well as some elements indispensable to the electric functioning of
locomotives, as the contactors of line and the returns of current. A part of
this half-hall is occupied by teams loaded with the revision of the electric
equipments and the cupboards of electric equipments of locomotives in revision
to QM. Although since the conversion, these teams are placed, in the same way as
all the electric specialities, under the responsability of the workshop " A6 ",
they will be placed at the beginning of year 1992 under that of the workshop "
A3 ". They will be grouped together with the mechanical teams, by series of
machines, in two different sections, grouping together on one hand the series CC
72000 and A1A-A1A 68000/500 and on the other hand the BB 67000/200/300/400 and
the BB 63000, with the aim of facilitating the organization and the follow-up of
the revisions. In the half-hall "F", side "Rouen", are realized the revisions of
the Auxiliaries, (name given to QM at the ventilators of the engines of bogies),
the devices " Start Pilot " used to the cold start of the diesel engines, as
sending back of angle of the groups coolers etc... This is also in this team
that are prepared, on the base series of locomotives, the air compressors, which
are reviewed in the workshops of Nevers.A building site saddle-making is
responsible for repair or assembly of all the bellows connections, joints and
other parts made of leather, special paper or canvas, horsehair filters, and
hoses flexible of connection. A team that specializes in working on parts in
polyester occupies the old building "thermal treatments" outside the main
building in the north court. Among its activities we can mention: the repair and
manufacture of all parties in complex of polyester are implemented "in" and "on"
the locomotives. It is within the functions of this team, the role of trainer
for the national specialty. Under the orders of the same team leader, are the
carpenters, are some modelers.
The workshop "A7" is responsible for the thermal activity. Diesel
engines are completely dismantled in the half-hall "A" side Rouen. The motors
frames, have expertised in a specialized site on the end of the hall "D" side of
Paris by the technique of "ressuage" (use of a product penetrating and then a
revelatory that aims to identify cracks ).
The crankshafts are ground in a yard located next to Paris at the
end of the hall "F". The hall "B" is essentially reserved for the assembly of
internal combustion engines and revision of their constituents (oil pumps,
diesel oil, water, turbos, injection pumps etc.)..
Once gone back up, engines go out of the hall "B" on road
trailers, and are directed either towards the bench test situated outside of the
building at the extremity "Paris" near the station of tarage, or in the hall "C"
where they will take back place in locomotives.
Among the significant changes brought about by the arrival of diesel in
Quatre-Mares, one of them is the arrival of pieces of small size in large
quantities. The standardisation of locomotives, allowed to symbolise the major
part of constituents. The multitude of different parts in sufficient quantities
for the annual program review of locomotives, quickly makes the inadequate
supply store. Which requires construction in 1974 of a new store.
The management of the store is decomposed into two different
categories. The first one includes the management of the not repairable parts or
still at " reduced costs ", called " Consumable Parts " which are bought in the
private sector. The second, takes care of the management of parts repaired in
the establishment, or in the other workshops of the material, and for which a
particular name in summer defined according to their cost more or less brought
up by repair. (PRM = Repairable Parts of the Material, PRMD = Repairable Parts
of the Material with Endowment).
There are about 11,000 symbols of consumable parts stored in QM.
The store provides resource management and national values for 6700 of them.
The supplement is administered by other establishments of the "equipment". The
value of this stock in 1993 is worth 100 million francs. The value of parts sold
to different customer establishments over a period of one year is that year
around 180 million francs. For parts managed Q.M. the average time elapsed
between the order placed by the manager of the symbol and the receipt of the
parts from private industry is 7.5 months. This figure measures the importance
of consumption forecasts. About 500 symbols PRM and PRMD are stored in the
facility for an estimated turnover in 1993 to 345 million francs. Of these 500
pieces, 267 are repaired and maintained in QM.
In total it is counted 22,000 entries a year to
the stock, consisting of orders in the private sector and with other
establishments SNCF , and 9,000 items exited of stock to meet orders placed by
individual customers. The rate of customer satisfaction is close to 96%. The
Unmet demands quickly, resulting in shortages, for which the rate is about 1%.
To these figures must be added about 12,000 receptions for "direct purchase" for
the materials not symbolised. To make available to users, at work, the majority
of parts used to repair locomotives, or PRM and PRMD, some "self-service" have
been installed since the beginning of the activity diesel. 6300 articles are
symbolized and placed into various locations of the workshops. Some, such as
bolts, are in many places and brings to 7000 the number of boxes constituting
stocks advanced. A service of the store is charged of managing this storage and
requires a permanent visit boxes. Indeed, in order not to interfere with the
production it is necessary to detect those who have reached a minimum threshold
studied as a function of supply difficulties. Which generates more than 35,000
detections and deliveries per year.
Storage is done in the store 90% on racks and
shelves. the rest is on the ground. As an example, we could estimate stocks in
kilometers. If we put, end to end, the palettes of big parts, they would spread
out on 4 km. The small boxes of parts, of more reduced dimensions, them, would
spread out on 2.5km, if we put them side by side.
The parts are transported, for their entry or their exit, through
various means of transport. The suppliers
send about 2500 wagons at QM per year, and the store sends 1650 wagons to its
various clients. Each year, more than 3,000 trucks pass through the store, to be
loaded or unloaded, partially or completely. About 4000 packages are shipped
each year by the "SERNAM" for masses between 2.5kg and 3 tons. An internal mail
service dispatch 2000 letters per year for some package of less than 5kg.
Services such as, mail, packages, taxis etc. .., are used marginally.
Apart from the PRM and PRMD, whose total mass is
difficult to quantify, the various QM customers buy 10,000 tons of consumable
All of these activities are provided by about
fifty people, in order to best satisfy customers in QM. Within the staff, two of
them provide the quality control of parts of private industry. they composes
about 100 ticket for qualitative abnormalities.